Posted on 29-07-2012
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

Waiting for the red light to turn green at a Kolkata crossroad recently, I suddenly saw Rabindranath Tagore in a bus stand hoarding with his much loved poem, “Tumi Robe Nirobe” (Silence Envelopes You). Imagining the profoundness of the silence that is absolute in the poem, my eye spied a lamp-post hoarding ominously declaring that cigarette smoking can extinguish your life. Just below it, sitting on the floor was a 35-40-year-old man concentrating on vigorously grinding black sticks in a meat-mincer-lookalike. He’d expertly put the minced debris in tiny plastic pouches and staple them. A quietly passing stream of people either picked up filled pouches or stretched out their own metal pocket-containers for him to give them a refill. Nobody spoke, money changed hands silently with the practiced ease of great familiarity.

What a coincidence that within a fortnight I was involved in another silent interface with two Nobel Laureates, albeit in street signs. Tagore, the 1913 Nobel prizewinner of Literature in Kolkata, and the other in Vezelay, a Medieval village in France. Veering off the highway 200 kms from Paris, I drove my wife to the beautiful Morvan countryside famous for Burgundy wine. Being a UNESCO World Heritage site, the village architecture hasn’t changed much since the Middle Ages. A narrow hilltop road leads to the stunning, 11th century Abbey Church. Actually 25 years ago when I’d brought my parents here, my father had discovered a signpost declaring that Romain Rolland, Nobel prizewinner in Literature 1915, lived and died in this house. Being a Bengali, this established an immediate connection as he’d read various published Rolland-Tagore conversations and letters. At Rolland’s request, Tagore had signed the “La Déclaration pour l’ indépendence de l’esprit,” the first organized attempt to globally mobilize intellectual opinion against war.

I wonder why the world treasures these Nobel awards. Sweden’s inventor of dynamite Alfred Nobel, the owner of Bofors, established them from the money he amassed selling cannons and armaments for warfare. My favourite Nobel awardee refused to accept the award. He’s French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, whose funeral I attended in 1980. He had to hide in his girlfriend’s sister’s house to avoid meeting journalists chasing him to find out why. Revisiting Kolkata, street posters make you effortlessly remember Nobel Laureate Tagore. But not all Nobel Laureates are lucky enough to enjoy such visibility including Rabindra Sangeet (Tagore songs) played at Kolkata traffic signals. Countries with the highest Nobel prizewinners such as USA 331, UK 114, Germany 102 and France 64 would be hard-pressed to honour awardees this way. Nobel even awarded Germans Adolf Butenandt, Richard Kuhn, Julius Wagner-Jauregg and Johannes Stark who were followers of Hitler’s Nazism that exterminated Jews, gypsies and the handicapped.

Livelihood vs human life: Curiosity overcame me at the long wait at the Kolkata traffic signal. I jumped off my car for a ringside view of the quaint action below the lamp-post. From under a moist, jute gunny-sack, the protagonist was taking large, individually rolled, semi-dried, stick-like black tobacco leaves, tearing off the spine skillfully and feeding the balance to the grinder. Cutting through the silence that prevailed in his work and customer interactions, I discovered this was Chaturbhuj Singh of Bihar selling khaini. This unprocessed ground tobacco for chewing is much more injurious to health than the smoked tobacco the hoarding above was warning people against. Beside him was a large faded paint tin can filled with some white substance of the consistency of hardened mayonnaise. I dipped a finger into this thick white cream, smelt it and immediately remembered it to be chuna used with tobacco. Chuna as powdered lime becomes a low cost paint for coating walls of poor homes. Chaturbhuj gives chuna free of cost. Sometimes customers come only for free chuna, thumb-mix it with tobacco before tossing it into the mouth.


Whatever the impact of his wares on his customers, you cannot but admire the silent entrepreneurship Chaturbhuj Singh displays. A kilogram of leaf costs Rs 300, he picks it up at Rs 200 per kg in the wholesale market, and makes Rs 400 per kg in his grounded-leaf retail. He’s open 7 days and sells 4 kgs in 13 hours, from 7-noon and 4-midnight. His readymade packets start from Rs 2, going upto Rs 20. So he makes about Rs 800 per day, with no overhead costs, just an umbrella when it rains. Even uniformed policemen stroll by, pick up a packet without paying. Chaturbhuj silently hands over stapled plastic packets to customers who’re in a hurry, but others silently wait in front of him with passion and patience for fresh khaini. What surprised me was how he’s automated his craftsmanship. Everything happens together, leaf-spine peeling, meticulous grinding, packing, sealing, filling little customer boxes with tobacco or chuna, transacting money. Nobody’s haggling, everybody’s quiet, buying at contented liberty because nowhere is there any written word threatening them that khaini can be cancerous.

Undoubtedly the poor man is making an honest livelihood under the open sky, oblivious to his profession possibly destroying many lives. This certainly is an interesting example of how India only takes care of the affluent, English posters warning them against health damage through smoking. But for the underprivileged, from their birth to livelihood generation, who cares about anything? Would Nobel ever consider an Entrepreneurship award for the silent entrepreneur, Chaturbhuj Singh?

To download above article in PDF Enveloped in silence

Financial Express link:http://www.financialexpress.com/news/enveloped-in-silence/980775/0

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Posted on 22-07-2012
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

Italian companies in India sell high quality men’s shoes that lace up elegantly through 16 small eye-holes. If inevitable wear-and-tear breaks the metal edges of these stylish, rounded laces, you’d be hard pressed to locate laces this long and thin, as I found out the hard way.

In Italy on work last week, my first agenda was buying such shoe-laces. Store after shoe-&-accessories store I trudged in Rome, to ultimately find a pair in a lingerie shop. The shopkeeper hesitated, then from some inner recess, emerged with tightly-sealed, dark blue, flat cotton laces. I had no choice but to spend 2 Euros for the trial. I forced in the new laces, but bad luck! They were too short. The shopkeeper shrugged. I struggled to weave back my old edgeless laces, but again no luck. On the street again in this awkward condition, a Bangladeshi small grocery retailer pointed out a Chinese store. It was a veritable Ali Baba’s treasure trove, with baubles, perfumes, plastic buckets, skipping ropes to shoe-laces all available. A blister-pack had 4 different colour and size laces for 80 cents. The point of this story is how exceptionally the Chinese are on their toes to deliver customer satisfaction and connect to local requirements in different countries.

Taking an obvious market gap and making it your specific business opportunity is the way to go. Young experienced professionals, most with MBAs, often come to me to bounce ideas about opportunities and their future. They talk of opportunities, are fascinated by foreign players, the lifestyle and luxury market which actually touches just 2-3-5% of our population. It’s often difficult to guide them that opportunity is not readymade like fish in a pond where you just lower a net for your catch. This “opportunity” jargon learnt from the media has no concrete base in reality until identified and meticulously converted to business.

Take Topy, for example, a French shoe repair shop set up 77 years ago. Today Topy is a sophisticated franchisee level business, also exporting shoe repair material to 50 countries. Even in France’s consumer society, Topy has given people the habit of keeping their expensive leather shoes for 10-15 years through repair. Full or half soles can be changed, heel height adjusted. Topy organized retails throughout the country give customers the exceptional comfort and guarantee of an expert service they 100% need.

Similarly there’s Speedy for car tyre replacement, servicing, air conditioning, mechanical or electronic problems, accessories or glass. For driving 600km from Paris to Grenoble, I recently rented an almost new German car, then got a tyre puncture. The rental agency directed me to any of Speedy’s 450 car repairing centres in France. You can take an appointment through phone or their website or just drive in unannounced, as I did. I was surprised how Speedy, a non-company owned garage, has tie-ups with car rentals, insurance companies and different manufacturers for servicing even during the guarantee period. For customers like me stuck mid-journey, Speedy brings a sigh of relief. In a jiffy Speedy replaced the tyre and sent me on my way.

I was curious about the mechanics here having total knowledge of so many vehicle makes, and enquired how they keep pace with technology. “Speedy franchisees have access to a training centre. We regularly send our mechanics to acquire skill and knowledge,” said the in-charge person wearing blue overalls. What’s incredible in this hassle-free service available in most cities is that customer expectations are met in the same way everywhere, and it costs less than a normal company garage.

Topy and Speedy saw the gaps in customer requirement and plunged into the opportunity to create businesses that have prospered. Do our young professionals or companies spot such grassroot-type opportunities? Perhaps India’s rote learning education system does not adequately equip them to understand beyond the generic. Building on this example, India has millions of garages and skilled mechanics that can enable a Speedy-type of auto repair business. This can solve multiple needs like unemployment, making the working class highly skilled and productive, and satisfying all customers not getting this unexpressed need fulfilled. The obvious opportunity of a bonafide garage charging lower than auto company garages would benefit everyone involved in delivering and receiving the service. But do MBA professionals who study entrepreneurship see it as such? On the other hand Indian companies always consider cost as the strategic factor rather than transferring opportunity into business reality. India’s corrugated diversity does throw up unusual opportunities. These can be spotted and converted, not by sitting in air conditioned offices, but on the roadside, in social living spaces, in traditional work practices.

In the same way, look at our cobblers (mochis) who get no dignity in society. Everybody requires shoe repairs, yet where in a city can you find a trained mochi when you need one? Most mochis are itinerant craftsmen with no access to technology beyond knowhow handed down from their fathers. Won’t it be great if such requirements and opportunities can be translated to uplift the life of working class people, create great business and attain high customer satisfaction? India has so many other unseen, untapped domains that are real opportunities to drive businesses. If only our young generation and corporate houses practice disruptive ideas, they can grab such opportunities. The crux in delivery is that consistent coherency is required for all-time execution excellence.

To download above article in PDF Opportunities awaiting drivers

Financial Express link:http://www.financialexpress.com/news/opportunities-awaiting-drivers/977633/0

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Posted on 15-07-2012
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

Several reader responses to my last week’s piece on rote learning being a malaise in our country’s education system has happily proved that there’s high sensitivity towards this deficiency. Appreciating my comments on the contrast in rote learning between China and India, Professor Ananthakrishnan wrote he’d just returned from 8 weeks in China as a senior international visiting scientist to the Chinese Academy of Science: “It gave me an opportunity to closely look at their educational system and I must say I was very impressed. They too complain of rote learning, but many of the students I met knew their math very well and could understand advanced mathematical concepts far better than corresponding level students in my MSc class in India. Their engineering industry works closely with academics and produces very high quality engineering products although there’s an impression, even inside China, that it is not high quality! In comparison to India, they seem to have surged far ahead. It would be total folly to compare India with China. Their focus and ability to achieve whatever aim they have set is certainly worth emulating, but I do not think that our political bosses have the capacity or the required technical background to do it!”

With over 50% population below age 25, and more than 65% below 35 years, India’s opportunity to drive the world’s future is tremendous if only we exit the path of memorizing for recall. Most students enter India’s mushrooming MBA schools directly after rote learning in graduation. They pay a hefty fee, but how can they become management professionals without any previous experience of how a company runs? Students of India’s best B-Schools mostly read American case studies like rote learning as part of their MBA course. If an Indian case study is utilized, American cultural norms are used to come to conclusions. That’s why these case studies often have no business connect or relevance in India’s industry experience.

On a business visit to Europe last week I was shocked to watch a TV documentary on poor working conditions in fabric dyeing outfits in India and Bangladesh. They cater to the Western fad of washed-out looking denim jeans. Fashionable brands sell discoloured jeans, torn at the thighs exposing skin or with worn-out back pockets so a teeny bit of panty can peep out. This distressed, used effect in denim cloth is creatively crafted in developing countries. Using a spy camera, some journalists visited such workplaces and filmed people working in a highly toxic atmosphere using strong chemicals for tinting and fading fabrics. Most workers here had lung disease from poisonous fumes, and many suffer from cancer. The objective of foreign media channels is always two-fold: to bash big business as irresponsible for importing and getting their dirty work done in poor countries from people with no health insurance; and secondly to supposedly protect their viewers by making them aware. The sensitive skin of the fashion conscious who wear these old-looking shorts and jeans could be affected by the toxic bath the fabric goes through. Slinky, sexy models were shown displaying the titillating trend for black lingerie. To prevent black cloth from bleeding colour, even more powerful, more toxic chemicals are used. That’s certainly not good for the health of wearers of these itsy-bitsy inner garments.

MBA students should gather India-specific, practical knowledge and experience instead of learning from foreign case studies. If young professionals fail to understand quality or deficiency in Indian manufacturing areas, how can they be disruptive in deploying their learning to change nasty work conditions in future? In the construction industry, for example, do they know the procurement procedure, how a brick field operates, or whether there’s life-threatening risk in iron ore and coal mines from where steel comes and people work hard without asking questions about their life and body conditions? Look at the supply chain of unorganized sectors such as staple food, fabric or footwear that’s really among the biggest drivers of our economy. As an Indian, you are happy with rice and roti (bread), but as an MBA student, do you question the practices deployed to procure items from their source, produce them for consumption, transport and distribute them, so that your mother can easily buy the products in her neighbourhood kirana (mom&pop) store?

An eminent CEO in France was admiring India’s contract labour or temporary workers system. He said it overtly seemed to exploit the unemployed, but if managed well, professionals can have the advantage of working in areas and companies of their choice. Companies can be rid of keeping people on the bench by hiring trained professionals for peripheral jobs as and when required. This way the company can focus on innovation, marketing and sales and outsource everything else, even manufacturing in its own factory. He bemoaned that many Europeans have become bonded to their companies because they refuse to dislocate. People mobility in India is a great advantage for any business enterprise. He said any company would be willing to even share its values with contract professionals to upgrade their quality of life and competency.

It’s clear that India requires disruption in business strategy to bring execution excellence at the workplace. Why disruption? On the one hand there’s the massive unorganized sector with a totally undisciplined way of working. On the other are foreign brands changing people’s perception in different livelihood and lifestyle domains. Without a disruption platform, what can you do between these two juxtaposed sectors? Young graduates in arts, engineering, commerce or science having minimum 4 to 6 years work experience need a professional teaching model that breaks the mold of the current rote learning process. They have to learn to disrupt and simultaneously bring excellence in execution in any industry domain. A practical, India-centric experiential professional education system is seriously required to equip young professionals to become disruptive in action while reflecting the art of execution to represent India in high value to the world.

To download above article in PDF Disruption with execution excellence

Financial Express link:http://www.financialexpress.com/news/disruption-with-execution-excellence/974521/0

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Posted on 08-07-2012
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

“Made in India” is still to acquire an inspirational platform globally. Post economic reforms 22 years ago, foreign companies came in with global expertise and knowhow. They suddenly roused the economy with inflow of investment. They outsourced ITES services supplied by low cost human trade and India gained the reputation of having a knowledge industry. Yet the country does not have a value driven brand that’s recognized globally.

On the other hand China, earlier known for cheap quality, today puts its “Made in China” manufacturing signature on the world’s most coveted, inspirational brand like Apple. This means “Made in China” has become global standard for even sophisticated products today. Korea too, insignificantly tucked away in northern Asia, has done a phenomenal job of mesmerizing the world with its brands, making Samsung, LG, Hyundai among others, into household names in every country. None of all these advancements have happened with any fundamental innovation. They are all examples of outstanding application work. They have been executed with hard work, elegance, high quality and innovative customer interface.

India’s basic education and professional learning system is driven by memorization or learning by rote which hamper the thirst for inventive application. Mechanical mugging is done through “mug books” or a series of question-and-answer publications that show the way to score high on written exams. Learning by heart has been a malaise in China too where 6 million students take exams every year. Yet they have been able to emerge from it to create value differentiation in the market. Discipline, process and creativity have played their roles proving that China has gone beyond the learning by rote pattern into expressive delivery excellence.

The learning by rote culture has not de-scaled in India. As per a McKinsey study, a very high percentage of educated professionals are not qualified for high-end jobs. They comprise 75% of engineering graduates, 85% of finance and accounting professionals and 90% of professionals with other degrees. This means that only a few educational institutes equip students for professional competence. The balance 25% engineering graduates, 15% finance and 10% other degree professionals are competent for high end jobs corresponding to the degrees they got because they got through by rote learning. A telling example is that only 3% Indian academics publish research papers in Science as opposed to 60% US academics.

Before liberalization, the Indian market was demand-less, that is, the saving mentality was on. Post 1991, sudden economic power created the shift to a demand led market with tremendous choice offered by foreign players. So clearly an opportunity was there for value addition but Indian Industry did not take it up. Again the root of this can be traced to rote learning as that pollutes the foundation of learning and does not allow people to be inventive in any situation. A value led market can only be created by a learning system that calls for analysis and encourages following a process for problem solving by individual innovative expression. Most Indian enterprises are more focused and feel comfortable spending money in tangible assets rather than taking risks in greenfield areas. But the inviting market opportunity here has brought in global companies in droves. They’ve set benchmarks, even changed our purchase and usage pattern. For example, Indians were proud to say their refrigerator lasts 40 years. But the Koreans arrived to put new departure of changing Indian habits. With contemporary design and technology resulting in better functionality, refrigerators are changed every 5 years now.

Even the luxury retailing market, quite unknown earlier, has luxury products growing by 30% today. The luxury sector was Rs 310 billion in 2010 and pegged to be Rs 807 billion by 2015. Smaller cities are also becoming a big hub for luxury brands that are adapting to Indian conditions. For festive gifting luxury brands are combining local and cultural elements into their own creations. French luxury brand Hermes, best known for their Rs 19,182 plain white T-shirts and Rs 5,48,550 handbags, entered Indian with a line of fancy saris. Hermes expects to launch a perfume specific to India too. The Government has allowed100% foreign direct investment in single-brand retail so other luxury brands like Italian apparel Emilo Pucci will start operations soon. Louis Vuitton is bringing in three premium brands, beauty retail chain Sephora, Singapore fashion company Sincere and Hong Kong-listed Emperor Watch and Jewellery.

In practical business, people in India very clearly become highly inventive where rote learning does not work. Driving in crowded Indian streets and off-roads with one leg continuously on the brake and a hand on horn against all international conventions is an example. When I ask people why they drive in the middle of the road, the answer is that both sides have to be kept as walking paths. There’s the famous inventive use of the washing machine in busy roadside dhabas of Punjab.Instead of putting clothes in it , they efficiently whirr buttermilk or yoghurt in bulk for making delicious , frothy lassi in a jiffy. in  adverse situation when some water-logged roads become streams during the rain , rickshaw pullers have managed to put rubber tubes that make their rickshawa float in flooded streets then run again normally on non flooded streets. so clearly there is no dearth of intelligence, but the education system where rote learning reigns supreme make it very difficult for qualified executives to drive business through inventive application.

When a country is highly driven by rote learning, breaking the education mold is the only avenue for inventive application. Already the education market is growing at 14% and here too foreign institutions are tying up with Indian colleges to offer different education programs. Focus on “employability education” is being attempted in a few schools, colleges and universities across India. Industry needs to strengthen executive education so that they can create the value led market in the tremendous business opportunities available in unpredictable India.

To download above article in PDF Rote learning vs inventive application

Financial Express link:http://www.financialexpress.com/news/rote-learning-vs-inventive-application/971637/0

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Posted on 01-07-2012
Filed Under (POLITICS) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

Diverse unconnected news wafts in digitally, through electronic media, mobile phone, text messages, social networking, when travelling. As I was struggling to put some form to the last 15 days’ happenings of the world, my wife was changing the potpourri in a wooden bowl near my writing table. The word I searched for streaked in, potpourri!

Any collection of miscellaneous, diverse items is potpourri. English, Spanish and French have the same meaning for pot, while pourri is French for rotten. Since the 17th century, fresh flowers and herbs are gathered in France through spring and summer, dried and sea salt added. The concoction that ferments or moulds is stirred, spices and scent-preserving fixatives added in autumn, and the mixture put in perforated pots. The benefit rotting flowers give is room fragrance; a potpourri of happenings delivers undulating emotions, both cheerful and cheerless. Let’s travel for a potpourri of global happenings.

Greek TV slap: Greece, economically, politically troubled. Having worked for a Greek company continuously for 24 years, I greatly admire lovely Greece and Greeks. As I switched the TV on, extreme right politician Ilias Kasidiaris, was lunging forward, throwing water at Syriza Party’s Rena Dourou across from him. He then stood up and repeatedly slapped Communist Party’s Liana Kanelli during a political debate. Bewildered at how two women were physically attacked, I turned to my Greek friend Theodore. He messaged back, “Greeks invented democracy, but it cannot be applied to modern Greeks. Politics is a derby race today. Every Greek acts, explains and translates democracy for himself, not for common public welfare.” He added ironically, “I definitely prefer enlightened dictatorships like Cuba’s Fidel Castro and Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez to democratic anarchy.”

Bengali TV: Turning on a Bengali channel suddenly threw me off balance. Prominent, beautiful TV news anchor Moupia was talking very seriously, confidence enwrapped with embarrassment in her voice, about Pinki Pramanik’s “lingo pariksha” (sex examination). Indian woman star athlete Pinki, winner of gold medals and several Asian and Commonwealth Games honours, was arrested when her female live-in partner exposed her to be a man. The arresting West Bengal police officer said the victim alleged that Pinki continuously raped her, promised to marry her but later refused. Gender test on Pinki on June20 was inconclusive as she reportedly has both male and female reproductive organs. Just after Pinki’s news came the commercial, Japani Tel (oil of Japan). A snake-charmer with typical music arouses a sleeping cobra and sparks fly, very graphically indicating a kind of Viagra medicine. I’ve observed these ads come regularly after political controversies, disaster or entertainment programs, and only on Bengali TV, not elsewhere. Does Japani Tel’s heavy media investment mean the product is working so well in Bengal?

Zapping to another Bengali channel, I witnessed an “anchor hunt” show. It undoubtedly had an innovative format. Very surprisingly, highly regarded senior members of different political parties were the test subjects for aspiring young TV anchor candidates. A jury of silver screen actors and existing TV anchor judged them. This new exam format may be good for TRPs, may expose media-hungry politicians too, but should candidates be humiliate in public? Will jury members like being badgered the way they criticized future TV news anchors?

Uncertain First Lady: The absolute majority French President Francois Hollande’s Socialist Party won in the legislative elections allows him to govern independently, but its his political love triangle that global media is abuzz with. The most important candidate he’d openly supported lost the election. That was his Party’s 2007 French Presidential candidate Segolene Royal, who’s also his ex-partner and mother of his 4 children. Segolene was expected to occupy the third most important Government position after President and Prime Minister, as the Speaker of the National Assembly when she wins legislative election from La Rochelle. She was ahead in a triangular fight but the run-off saw dissident Socialist Olivier Falorni get 63% votes.

Segolene’s backstabbing defeat is traced to Hollande’s current partner, journalist Valerie Trierweiler. Taking a public swipe at Segolene, she tweeted, “Courage to Olivier Falorni who has not been unworthy, who has battled alongside La Rochelle residents for so many years with unselfish commitment" on June12. This created havoc, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault told Valerie to "know her place." The President’s children have allegedly refused to speak to the First Lady. Valerie finally capitulated, admitting she “made a mistake.” After her electoral defeat Segolene felt "murdered" by Valerie’s "violent blow" and quoted French writer Victor Hugo: "Traitors always pay for their treachery in the end." Is the First Lady’s motive to always remain in the limelight?

Media fixation on criminal case: The liberty to carry a gun perhaps keeps Americans in a perpetually agitated state. So making a criminal courtroom spectacular with high media attention is their forte. Jerry Sandusky’s trial on June22 for serial child molestation found him guilty on 45 out of 48 counts of sexual abuse. This could get him 422 years of imprisonment. Isn’t this kind of sentence weird? Are Americans inventing some new drug to make prisoners survive that long?

Indian Presidential game: India’s Congress party Presidential nominee, Pranab Mukherjee, is almost sure to win. Before quitting as Finance Minister and from Congress party, he said, “Soon I’ll not be a political entity” and appealed to all elected MPs and MLAs to vote him President. He attended the Congress Working Committee meeting on June25, albeit for the last time. In Indian democracy is it possible to be “apolitical” after being a party politician for 4 decades? Media and political parties are in high pitch, but do common people understand this potpourri in spite of being voters? Do 480 million below-poverty-line people care who’s going to live luxuriously in the world’s largest Presidential residence? Surely it won’t make any dent in their livelihood possibilities?

Real potpourri is preserving natural fragrance in fermented dried flowers. Modern potpourri is as colourful but artificial, yet retaining pourri’s real meaning, which is rotten. I wonder if all these episodes above are real or artificial potpourri?

To download above article in PDF Potpourri world

Financial Express link:http://www.financialexpress.com/news/potpourri-world/968815/0

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