Posted on 29-08-2010
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit

The Indian EXPRESS/ The Financial EXPRESS article

From my struggling artist and stupid NRI stages, I entered the intellectual blah blah period working for global companies. Let’s travel 3 countries from where I unlearnt blah blah to attain the reality of social insights.

Argentina: Appointed by Argentina’s Bagley biscuit company, we presumed health and hygiene to be of paramount importance in a developing Latin American country. We accordingly prepared for interactions with people at large there. Day after day we did research after research; people looked at us, but showed total disinterest. So to integrate myself strongly into Argentina’s cultural life, I went to Buenos Aires’ famous tango dance. I’ve always thought the elegant tango to be joyful, but discussions with local people in the theatre revealed that it originated in lower-class districts from former slave peoples in melancholic situations, and spread to working-class slums. The audience, mostly over 45 years, said life’s nostalgic aspect is very significant in Argentine society. Later interactions with younger people corroborated that through their country’s political turmoil, they’d rather remember stories of good times heard from older generations.

A Bagley salesman observed my curiosity about nostalgia, and spoke of his father, a former Bagley employee. I immediately sought an invitation to their home. Spending time with the 80-year-old, I discovered that 150 years ago Melville Bagley came from Boston, established this company, and created a drink, jam and criollitas which is a cracker-type biscuits for poor people. Criollitas have since become almost staple food, transcending generation after generation in Argentine life. This uncommon factor was escaping us; the brand had lost the essence of its origin. We revisited memories saying Bagley is the “Link of Generations;” and putting Mr. Bagley’s 150-year old signature as the brand identity connected to everybody. So reminiscences were more admirable than my preconceived hygiene and health blah blah which Argentines found boring as they were actually more advanced than developed countries in these respects.

Bangladesh: Researching the classic Reckitt and Colman product Robin Blue in Bangladesh, we conceptually prepared consumer interaction stimuli that had something called rebirth or rejuvenation of clothes that the product enabled. We ran the research in Dhaka, Chittagong and a few provinces. Four days passed, I was amazed that consumers were silent on this particular subject, nothing interesting was emerging. Then one of the women respondents took me aside and advised me to stop talking about rebirth. Muslims consider it an insult to their religion, she said. Simultaneously, the consumer recruiting agent got information that some people, hearing about rebirth discussions, were considering action against us for anti-religion marketing. I was shocked and seriously wounded mentally. I apologized saying it was out of the question that we’d disturb religious sentiments, and packed up.

After spending time to understand their social milieu and how to connect the brand without touching religion, I returned with the concept of “Purity.” The connect was immediate and very high. Purity, a crucial factor in Islamic thought, linked people to quality, efficacy and the emotive factor. Purity connected to Indians as well from hygiene and religious angles. Instead of the product making clothes only white, it also made the clothes pure, an added benefit.

Japan: Twenty years ago, the Japanese largely drank their traditional Sake, but would covet sophisticated Western alcohol. The crisis for Western brands was imitation from Taiwan and China, so authenticity for differentiation was important. Remy Martin, the French liquor company, appointed me to expand a category called armagnac in Japan before its global penetration. The brand name was Cles des Ducs, meaning Key of the Duke. I carried all kinds of French sophistication as stimuli to bounce with consumers in Japan. After 3 weeks in Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima among other cities, nothing exceptional was coming out. I wanted to connect culturally so requested Remy Martin personnel in Japan to arrange visits to Japanese homes, a difficult task, but they somehow managed. In unstructured discussions, it turned out that Key of the Duke was the handicap. A key in Japanese culture represents a closed mindset and life, particularly for the pleasure of alcohol. They understand cognac as being from Napolean’s period, but armagnac? The greenish brown bottle had no glamour, it merely hid the expensive golden alcohol. Was this fake cognac? I understood that this brand cannot work here.

Returning to Paris I shared with the client the deficiencies in the brand’s name, bottle colour and authenticity. How can I ask the client to change such an old authentic brand? However, the client allowed me to dive deep into these 3 subjects. My historical research proved that armagnac was the oldest brandy in France, dating back to 1411 in the Middle Ages whereas cognac was officially born in the 17th century. It clarified that armagnac’s genesis was in France and monks gave this agricultural alcohol to poor people for therapeutic purposes.

We first addressed the look, making the bottle transparent and giving it a hammered texture to represent a Middle Ages temple. The brand’s typography treatment followed those times. Spending time in liquor cellars I thought to leave the cellar door open in the packaging design to connote the Duke is inviting people, rather than closing the cellar door with his Key. When I returned to Japan with this story, consumers started to talk from day one. This is the way Remy Martin re-launched the brand in Japan and was able to take it global. Here again, preconceived blah blah had failed to connect to consumers.

In the course of my business journey, I had to unlearn many things I picked up in my initial consulting career. From prepared corporate intellectual blah blah on market hypothesis, how to interact with and direct consumers or create the trend, I had to radically reverse preset ideas. From my experience, the more I initially interact with people from across the world with an exploratory mindframe and act stupid, the more valuable insight I gain because people are so genuine, they open their mind and discuss a variety of things. I have translated these practical primary insights from people into business success for my global clients.

So I understood, “Marketing is story telling of a selling proposition which has differentiating extra benefit.” This story cannot be created in the boardroom nor be predetermined. It has to capture the real essence of human society. My learning from the field is that no matter what business education you have from renowned universities or grey-haired experience you possess from running mega-companies, it’s the practical social reality that will give you the insights you need to connect your brand to people.

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Posted on 22-08-2010
Filed Under (PARADOX) by Shombit

From Discomfort Zone column by Shombit Sengupta in Financial Express and Indian Express

Flying in from Paris to New Delhi airport in the wee hours of a January morning in 1998, I was greeted by a chauffeur waiting to drive me to my destination on the outskirts of Lucknow. I had come on a five-day market visit and for some research with consumers for an Indian client. My research team had already reached the day before to make preparations.

The team members of my research recruiting agent had always been very good to me and they were so in particular that day since not only had I come from faraway France, I had driven a long distance to be on time to meet the consumer group. So they were very indulgent and asked me several times if I needed some refreshment. Even though I was not too hungry, I gave in and asked them to get me some Tiger.

After quite a few hours, the recruitment company manager came to meet me, looking dejected. She apologised saying they could not get Tiger anywhere in the city. I was shocked. Just the week before I had received a report from Britannia that Tiger, the biscuit brand we had created for them, was doing very well in the market and that it had even reached rural markets. So, I immediately called up my client in Bangalore to ask what the problem was and why was Britannia’s distribution unable to make Tiger biscuits available in and around Lucknow. Within two hours the Britannia area manager came to meet me at the research venue outside the city. He said he did not understand what the problem was and took me to the kirana shops just outside the research venue. And sure enough, there were plenty of Tiger biscuits there. The confusion was cleared when my recruiting agent sheepishly confessed that as I was an NRI coming from Europe and had asked for Tiger, she naturally assumed it must be some alcohol I wanted. She had heard of Tiger Beer and they figured there must be some Tiger drink and so they combed every liquor store in the area. I then understood that I was carrying the image of a stupid NRI. Even though the brand new Tiger brand had become very popular at that time, they could not connect this Tiger to an NRI. They connected alcohol rather than biscuits to an NRI and the irony is that I am a teetotaler.

One of the biggest dreams in my life was to give a certain level of comfort to my parents. They had suffered enough hardship, migrating from East Bengal, the refugee colony where they lived was dark and life at our subsequent rented homes was no song either.

So when I could afford it, I asked them to find a home in a good neighbourhood in Kolkata. On the suggestion of friends, I bought an apartment for my parents at Mandeville Garden in 1991. In the winter of 1992, I came to India to spend a few days with them in their new home. One day, at about 11 a.m., as I took a walk to discover the neighbourhood, I was thrown off balance. In fact, I remember being totally bewildered as to how my friends could advise me to come to such a place. At every corner, I could see mostly young, well-dressed women, sitting, chatting, laughing and gossiping in front of houses or on the steps before them. I rushed back home in anger and asked my mother why we had chosen to live in such a place; did they know that we were in a red light district? Several relatives had come visiting us and none of them could understand what I was fuming about and why I was carrying on about prostitutes. I immediately marched them all out of the apartment to show the stylish girls standing around in street corners. They burst out laughing and just wouldn’t stop. It turned out that these were young mothers who had come to pick up their tiny tots from school. There’s a famous school called South Point near Mandeville Garden. As they come from distant places and the children’s session lasts three hours, the mothers don’t go back home after dropping the children off. They either do their errands nearby or wait patiently to collect their children after school. That was clearly another NRI stupidity I displayed.

An NRI Bengali friend once told me a heart rendering story of how despite the fact that his two sons were born and brought up in France, he instilled in them a great love and sense of belonging for Bengal. On when they were in a train in Bengal, they said a few words in Bengali but when other passengers continued the conversation they couldn’t answer them. Later my friend overheard some passengers whispering and laughing about the “two stupid NRI guys from Paris.” He was heartbroken but tried to hide his emotions by making it into a joke.

There are NRIs who stay connected to India by watching Bollywood films. My five-year-old grand daughter goes to ballet class in London. When I ask her to show me a dance, she opens YouTube and does a Bollywood number, singing “You are my Sonia…” with a Cockney accent.

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Posted on 15-08-2010
Filed Under (ART) by Shombit

The Indian EXPRESS/ The Financial EXPRESS article

“Your article seems to reflect 3 stages of your life,” wrote a reader of my last column piece, Culture Connect Marketing. That has inspired me to write personal life-stage experiences in my next three articles: this first one on the struggling artist; second, the stupid NRI; and third, my consulting intellectual blah-blah stage.

From experiencing Kalipodo Dey’s miraculous ointment in Kolkata’s crowded suburban train, I landed into the Paris metro in 1973. Rushing in, I stepped on a passenger’s toe, very apologetically looked at her and said, “Merci.” When she frowned, I suddenly realized my blunder; I was supposed to say “Pardon,” the other French word I’d learnt. In complete embarrassment I longed for the station, abruptly got off to escape her, and continued my journey in the next train.

To fulfill my artist’s dream, I convinced my mother to buy me Air India’s Rs 2,700 youth fare Delhi-Paris-Delhi ticket. In those days, India government allowed $8, and $200 called FTS, for traveling abroad. I could only afford $8. To collect the foreign exchange I had to take my passport to the Reserve Bank. Being unsure how to handle things, I asked a Kolkatan classmate to accompany me. Our art college had 2 types of students, villagers like me, always very shy and scared of making mistakes, and the savvy Kolkatan who knew everything. My classmate insisted on taking Kolkata’s only automatic elevator installed at the Reserve Bank, but I refused. I’d been observing small town people like me bravely trying to get on, hesitating, failing and timidly taking the staircase; I didn’t want to become the public laughing stock too. But little did I know then that on disembarking in Paris, direct from my refugee colony outside Kolkata, I’d face a similar problem. This time it was a flat, automated moving road inside the airport terminal. With a thumping heart I’d awkwardly advance my leg on it, and retreat immediately in fright. Several Air India air hostesses passed me by without paying any attention. I didn’t speak any French, only tattered English. Suddenly a French woman appeared, held my hand, and taught me how to walk on a road that moves relentlessly.

Underprivileged people don’t have much scope or choice in life, so they struggle to take whatever’s easily available. For 95% of such people, it’s very difficult to take a visionary step to create a new scope. Being part of this situation, an art student with no promising future, I had to take the big risk to venture out of struggling times. I left for Paris with $8 in my pocket, courage in my heart, an ambition to be an artist and earn to improve my family’s living condition. I didn’t know a soul in Paris, but had heard of a Bengali scientist called Dr. CK Pyne who didn’t know me at all. After negotiating the airport’s moving road, I directly arrived at Dr Pyne’s laboratory on a cold November day. I’ll never forget his incredible generosity. He heard my story and gave me shelter without questioning who I was; it turned out he was an art lover too. Had he been on holiday that day, I don’t know where I’d have been today.

Living in Dr. Pyne’s 13th District apartment in rue Champs de l’Alouette, I went out the next day for toothpaste. Dr. Pyne even gave me 300 francs to live on, saying I could repay him when I started earning. At the supermarket I gestured teeth cleaning and was shown Colgate. But I wanted to buy something different from Colgate which I’d seen enough of in India. So I gestured the cleaning action more vigorously with my hands and people directed me to another shelf in the store. I returned with a large sized toothpaste tube and kept it in the toilet. After dinner I opened the packet and found the tube integrated with a brush that was round, sponge type. When I squeezed, the paste came onto this, and I put it in my mouth to clean up. I kept brushing and brushing, but there was no lather, the color was brown, and I was getting a waxy feel in the mouth. I felt shy to talk to Dr. Pyne about this strange toothpaste but mentioned how very different toiletries are in France. “I’ve seen your purchase in the toilet, I hope you haven’t put that into your mouth,” he said. When I asked why, he said I had bought shoe polish.

Everyday I’d go helter-skelter looking for a job, and still couldn’t speak French. In December 1973 I met a man in Alliance Française who promised a job if I went to him the next day at 3 pm. From Dr Pyne’s house my appointment was about 8 kms away, in Pigalle, North Paris. When I reached Pigalle to get my job, I entered a house in a small lane; everything looked quite bizarre, a large room was separated into cubicles with flowing curtains. I wondered if I’d come to the right place, and peeped inside the cubicles. Cubicle after cubicle, all I found were nude couples making love. It was a brothel! I got petrified and didn’t know what to do. I quickly made an exit and stood by the staircase. An old lady came and explained that I should be in front at the lane, from 3pm to 4am. My work would be to bring people from the road to the room, and I would get 25 francs per day, that was Rs. 37 then! With the only objective of making money, I wasn’t thinking of the brothel or the job being offered. I could start right away, she told me, or come tomorrow. I said I’ll come the next day.

I told Dr. Pyne I’d got a job without explaining more; he didn’t probe either. The next afternoon, a freezing winter day, I boarded the metro, dozed a bit and traveled a few stations. A sudden jerk from the metro changing tracks sent shivers down my spine and I hastily got off midway. The uneasy discomfort I’d been feeling told me this was not the purpose of my coming to Paris. At that time I didn’t even know there’s a professional called a pimp! I walked home and didn’t return to Pigalle. I decided this opportunity was not right for me. This is the first episode of my life’s journey from Kalipodo Dey’s dramatic sales pitch in Kolkata’s local train to my mental trauma over a pimp’s job in the Paris metro.

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Posted on 08-08-2010
Filed Under (BUSINESS) by Shombit


Marketing practices in India generally try to superimpose experiences from Western books. Let me illustrate why I’m convinced that culture connect marketing is desperately required for India.

Returning home about 30 km from Sealdah railway station after art college in Kolkata was a nightmare every evening. Even before reaching the terminal, the train would fill up with upcounty passengers. To get a seat I’d sprint to the platform’s end, compete with other passengers to jump into the train still chugging in, even as outgoing passengers were rushing out. Ignoring physical danger in such antics, we’d focus on grabbing a window seat to escape the boiling 50-degree summer heat and humidity, fans not working and smelly, jam-packed standing room only. Those who couldn’t make the door would throw in a handkerchief to reserve a window seat, and fights among passengers about owner authenticity of the handkerchief were commonplace.

Train departures were regularly delayed about 40 minutes; in that time some passengers would already start sleeping and snoring in stand-up positions, holding on to hanging handles. Once the train started the compartment got noisy. Suddenly a betel leaf chewing man, about 45 years old, wearing khaki trousers, blue shirt and carrying a small suitcase, would shout in a very high pitch tone, "Gentleman!…” In Bengali, “Aeje moshaira…….kukurer……shuorer….. (soft muffled speech sounds interspersed with loudly heard words meaning son of a b***h…… son of a p*g……)." Shocked silence would immediately prevail; he’d pause long enough to look at people’s faces, their reactions to abusive language. When he’d gauge somebody’s ready to retaliate, he’d dramatically say, "If they should bite you, the cure is here!" He’d flash out several small glass jars from his pocket, expose them to his audience, saying, "This is Kalipodo Dey’s miraculous ointment (ascharjya malam)." Without bothering to ask permission, he’d directly lift the shirt of a passenger near him, and start applying the ointment to create his experiential demonstration. Then he’d mobilize other passengers to smell his ointment and offer stress relieving application experiences that the “ascharjya malam” also provides.

As I was a regular traveler, he became familiar and answered my query. He said he needs to run on for 8 stations, change compartments and finally sells 170 to 200 pieces per day. This was in 1971.
I have never experienced such theatrical sales in suburban trains from Paris, London, New York, Tokyo or Sydney. This is India’s typical experiential, cultural brand promotion. The salesman knew how to attract people’s attention in their uncomfortable, overcrowded condition, spectacularly articulated the benefits of his miraculous ointment supported by swear words, and went on to human body application for the product feel experience to knock-out any doubt about quality. I’d seen this salesman’s ingenuity several times, his pitch was always the same, but he’d use different vocabulary variants to engage regulars like me.
When I visited my parents in Kolkata in 1984, it incidentally was mango season. Accompanying Father and me to Gariahat market, my 8-year-old France-born son spoke enough Bengali to ask the mango seller if the mangoes were sweet. The seller looked at my son and me, obviously understanding we were stupid NRIs, and said, "Don’t keep the mangoes near salt." At home my son insisted his grandmother keep the mangoes away from salt. Confused, my mother asked Father to explain what the grandchild was saying. Father laughed and elucidated that the seller’s metaphor for mango sweetness guarantee was that salt will become sweet near these mangoes.

The next day I verified with the mango seller if my father’s story was what he’d meant. He looked at me bewildered and said, Of course.” I realized I’d been distanced with this culture already, what was my father’s matter-of-fact understanding totally bypassed me. But the mango seller’s mystifying selling pitch proved my theory that "Marketing is story telling of a selling proposition which has differentiating extra benefit." This is the way he’d become my parents’ regular mango supplier.
In 2001 Bangalore IIM Professor Dr Mithileswar Jha invited me to take a marketing session for a combined students and guests forum at IIMB’s big amphitheatre. As I started speaking about my marketing fundamentals of “Visibility, Proximity and Availability of the product to consumers,” three peanut vendors came in front of the stage with their carts, roasting peanuts and making the familiar iron-ladle-on-hot-iron-vessel sounds. The inviting aroma of roasted peanuts wafted through. The students couldn’t help themselves; they quietly approached a vendor, and came away with a notebook-paper cone that upturned easily to drop warm peanuts into their hands. In my 90-minute session they’d finished the peanuts of all three peanut sellers.

Nobody had understood that I’d deliberately organized the peanut sellers. I used them to demonstrate their incomparable creation of Visibility (the cart, the ding-ding ladle sounds to attract people), Proximity (the inviting aroma, the instantly-made, easy-to-pour, takeaway packs) and Availability (when a little hunger comes, peanuts are easily available to munch). Knowing that I give lectures, seminars and workshops in different prestigious institutes in Europe and the US, the students were expecting sophisticated Parisian marketing jargon from me. Instead they learnt lessons from a live example of cultural connect marketing that’s very Indian, experiential and truly practical. At the end I told them not to waste money on learning sophisticated things while overlooking the basics. Mithileshwar asked, “What’s your message, Shombit?” India’s cultural marketing is simple, I’d said; people need to learn these tactics and convert them into very effective marketing with strong activation according to Indian culture.

This peanut story may have a sophisticated counterpart in Starbuck’s history. Starbuck’s visibility is emitting a specific coffee aroma into the street, its proximity is that being able to spend as much time you want at Starbucks, and its availability is being ever present in US street corners.

Western marketing is highly related to their cultural aspect. We need to extend our cultural stories as marketing case studies to understand and deploy. We can learn technical processes and discipline from the West, but deployment should follow our multi-faceted culture in different geographies. In any category, we don’t pay serious attention to product engineering, consistency, coherency, the product’s good looking and fresh retail presence. Instead marketers in India spend excessive time in advertising communication. A brand will have good national penetration if you execute the fundamental marketing job of cultural association like Kalipodo Dey’s miraculous ointment, the mango seller and peanut vendor did, and maintain the product’s quality and aspiration at any price point.

To download above article in PDF Please Culture connect marketing

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Posted on 01-08-2010
Filed Under (PARADOX) by Shombit

The Indian EXPRESS/ The Financial EXPRESS article 

Idea generation supported by advanced technical skill set creates differentiation excellence for a product or service. This provides tremendous returns to an industry and its future, and gets recognised, sustains, and acquires brand worth. Only when technical skill set is highly efficient can idea generation and breakthrough differentiation happen.

In business, a strong idea does not get monetized without technical skill set. And devoid of differentiation the product or service easily gets imitated or falls into the commodity zone. A simple example is how the UK, renowned Industrial Revolution pioneers, lost its monopoly in the generation of ideas and technical skill set when it chose to de-link from manufacturing industries and enter the financial engineering domain since about the 1980s. The country consequently suffered tremendous economic downturn with negligible industrial manufacturing to fall back upon. In contrast, Germany retained its industrial strength and sprang back after its total destruction in the Second World War. Continuity in honing technical skill sets has allowed Germany to maintain high quality manufacturing even as it went through the 21st century’s recessionary times with the rest of the world.

In ancient history, India, China and Japan had multifaceted technical skill sets in different technology aspects of those times. In subsequent political turmoil, many of these were lost. China and Japan have since developed contemporary technical skill sets, whereas India is yet to manifest how to regain our legendary technical skill sets. Let’s go into the 10th century where exceptionally high technical and artistic skill set was displayed at Khajuraho, among others. In every square feet you can see meticulously crafted design elaborately executed with passion and harmony in replicating a theme. Where has that generation’s incomparable technical skill set gene gone? The majority of technical skill set graduates today dream of the IT industry only, irrespective of their domain knowledge being mechanical, electronics or electrical engineering. So industries like automobiles and electronics are suffering a technical skill set shortfall.

Japan bounced back post nuclear implosion, defeat and obliteration of its economy, landscape and self esteem after the Great War. Japan may not have generated exceptional fundamental new ideas in industrial products the way Western Europe or North America has done, but extreme technical skill set makes Japan among the world’s most recognised in terms of quality and user-friendly miniaturization of industrial products.

China’s superb technical skill set for production has been unquestionably proven since the 6th century Tang dynasty. China is currently the world’s biggest manufacturing hub in spite of setbacks when politically establishing Communist ideology. When I visited a state-of-the-art factory for productionizing an industrial design, I enquired why China had a reputation for bad quality. The factory manager explained that China maintains a 4-pronged quality and price system for the same product to get faster return on investment. Everyone goes to China for cost reduction, so China delivers on customer demand as per customer price. He cited the example of iPod having “Made in China” written behind it. If there really was quality deficiency, neither Apple nor customers would have accepted it. Reverting to their superior technical skill set from ancient times to today’s digital era, China is fast overcoming quality scarcity even for low priced products.

Technical skill set excellence is the most important value that leads an enterprise to idea generation and differentiation capability. But Indian industry does not prize the technical skill set, so in turn, society does not glorify the techo-savvy professional. I have seen when techno-skilled professional NRIs return to India they abandon their superior technical skill set area to get into management and business. Actually the system compels them to bypass their technical stream. These techno-professionals do not rise in reputation nor do they become recognised leaders in their technical skill set. Work involving technical skill set per se is not perceived to be high category jobs in India. Unless they become business managers with financial targets, techno-professionals do not get high remuneration either. And society judges career growth by the large numbers of people that a manager supervises over, so the technical professional with fewer reportees loses out here as well. As climbing the technical ladder will not bring him reverence, but only stagnation, he willy-nilly acquires managerial skill. This is the way we kill our technical skill set; subsequently idea generation and differentiation are lost.

The combined mentality of the Indian employer, employee and society is responsible for killing this technical skill set. I’ve heard of an IT engineer who was being paid significantly more to stay on in the technical stream but he pleaded to be shifted to a managerial role. He said his parents were about to arrange his marriage, but his marriageable value was crumbling as he was not managing too many people, so not recognized to be holding any top-notch position.

Most Indian IT companies neglect the technical skill set. This hampers their going up the value chain to develop products, productised services or provide high-end technology consultancy to clients. All our country’s engineers are getting drained to enter the business area and for body shopping. Not experiencing the technology prowess of young techno-savvy Indians, the Western world thinks India is only good for very basic IT coding for routine customer requirement. Indian IT engineers may have quickly got rich, but there will always remain a gap in their technical skill set competency.

The technical skill set of an industry is exactly like that of a football player. You cannot be a famous footballer or opinion leader of football if your score in 5390 square metres within 90 minutes is not very high. This is the skill set. People can handle football clubs or football merchandize, but without the skill set of football players on the ground, football tournaments cannot exist. Absorbing this football metaphor, India needs to have the passion to invest in and build technical skill sets in every domain.

Every industry has its specific technical skill set that needs to be sharpened and encouraged with high rewards, elevated designations and better social recognition. It’s about time Indian industries paid attention to developing their employees’ technical skill set at every level so that individual ‘football players’ in whatever position they are playing in is able to excel at the company job. Instead of migrating people to business areas, raising technical skill set excellence will lead the enterprise to superior idea generation and differentiation to command the global market with, and be sustainable there.

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